Construction Types



Is used for high quality dress and town shoes, the top section (or welt) is chain stitched to the upper and insole rib at the point where it curves under the last. This is supplemented by a lockstitch out seam bonding the welt and outsole. The outsole is then sewn to the welt around the edge. Goodyear Welt creates heavier less flexible footwear and the process is regarded as the sturdiest of all shoe constructions.

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Cemented construction

Cement Construction (also known as ‘Stuck on construction’ in the UK; or the ‘Compo Process’) is used for lightweight and flexible shoes and the outsole is stuck to the upper by adhesive. Bonwelt is another variation with its distinguishing feature being a strip of welting attached by stitching or cementing to the top edge of the insole. The shoe is then flat lasted. This is not a true welt construction wherein the welt is attached to the rib of the insole.

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Also known as Veldt or veldschoen is a cheaper method used to produce lightweight flexible soles for children’s shoes and some casual footwear. Here the upper turned out (flanged) at the edge of the last and stitched to the runner. In some countries it is known as ‘veldt’ and ‘veldtschoen.’ The technique is used for lower priced footwear.

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Is considered to be the oldest shoe construction this consists of a single layer section, which forms the insole, vamp and quarters. The piece is moulded upwards from the under surface of the last. An apron is then stitched to the gathered edges of the vamp and the sole is stitched to the base of the shoe. This method is used for flexible fashion footwear. The imitation moccasin has a visual appearance of a moccasin but does not have the wrap around construction of the genuine moccasin.

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Moulded Methods

Have the lasted upper placed in a mould and the sole formed around it by injecting liquid synthetic soling material (PVC, urethane). Alternatively, the sole may be vulcanised by converting uncured rubber into a stable compound by heat and pressure. When the materials in the moulds cool the sole-upper bonding is complete. These methods combine the upper permanently into the sole and such shoes cannot therefore be repaired easily. Moulded methods can be used to make most types of footwear.

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In this process the upper, socks and the wrapper are sewn together. The last is then forced into the upper. Unlike other shoes, there is no opportunity to take up the surplus upper into the lasting allowance, so all the parts must be cut and stitched accurately. After the insertion of the last the insole or platform or mid sole is carefully stuck-on to the socks with in the stitched area by means of a suitable adhesive. Then the wrapper is lasted on it. The filler is inserted into the gap. After scouring the wrapper, the sole is cemented on by proper adhesive and pressed the shoe by air pressure to ensure good attachment. This type of construction is used mainly  for casual and leisure type footwear particularly for ladies and children open toe and open heel shoes.

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Water Proof

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